ENVIS Centre, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt. of India

Printed Date: Thursday, July 25, 2024


The state of Jharkhand was carved out of the state of Bihar in 2000. Ranchi is the capital of Jharkhand a state that is more famous for the various political happenings than its developments. The captain of the Indian National Cricket team, Mahendra Singh Dhoni hails from Ranchi, the capital of the state. The state has had many challenges in terms of crime and social issues and the governments here have found it difficult to come to terms with the same. The state is located in the eastern part of the country and has Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal as neighbors apart from Bihar and Orissa.

The Population of Jharkhand according to the 2011 census stands at about 32 million, making it the 13th most populated state in India. The state makes up about 3.5% of the country's population a figure which was about 3% during the last census in 2001. The state is spread over an area of about 79000 sq. km. one of the smaller states in the country in terms of area. The density of population per sq. Km. is about 414, which is above the national average by a good 30 points. The state has a growth rate of about 22% which slightly exceeds the national growth rate of about 17%. The population of the state is rising considerably more due to the lack of education and lack of understanding about family planning. The literacy rate in the state is about 67% a figure that needs instant correction and steps to do so need to be put into effect immediately. The sex ratio in Jharkhand is about 940. The statistics in the Jharkhand Census 2011 reveal facts that can be instrumental in planning for a better development plan for the state.

The largest city in the state of Jharkhand is Jamshedpur while Ranchi is the capital city of the Jharkhand. The languages spoken in the Jharkhand state includes Hindi. In total Jharkhand (JK) state comprises 24 districts. The ISOCODE assigned by International Organization for Standardization for Jharkhand state is JK.


Industralization and urbanisation were other factors for rapid demographic change in Chhotanagpur (the present Jharkhand state) between 1881 and 1951. Immigration of labourers from Gaya, Munger, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh for the mining of mica in Koderma and Giridih and coal in Dhanbad and Jharia was seen to the extent of 12% and 38.6% respectively in the early decades of 20th century. Similarly as many as 50% of the unskilled labourers and the majority of the skilled labourers came from north Bihar,Odisha, West Bengal, Bombay and Uttarpradesh to work at the iron and steel industries of Jamshedpur. Along with the immigration of majority Indian people to Jharkhand, there also started the emigration of tribal peoples to the tea plantations in Assam and West Bengal.

The demographic changes continued in Jharkhand more rapidly after independence, ironically through the very process of planned development in the country. Central water commission's report in 1994 reveals that 90 major dams were built in Jharkhand since 1951. Apart from these major dams, 400 medium size dams and 11,878 minor dams were built in the region. There are 79 major industries and factories in the region. These development projects benefited mainly those belonging to the formal economy but deprived tribal communities, especially those belonging to informal economy and dependent on the natural resources for a livelihood. About three million people were displaced and affected by development projects like dams, industries, mines, wildlife sanctuaries, defence establishments, airstrips, housing colonies and infrastructural development like roads and railways. About 90% of the displaced were part of tribal communities.


Most members of the scheduled tribes of Jharkhand follow the animistic Sarna religion. Sarna is the Mundari word for ‘Sacred Grove’. Sarna involves belief in a great spirit called the Sing Bonga. Tribal belief holds the world to be inhabited by numerous spiritual beings of different kinds. Tribal communities consider themselves as living and doing everything in close association with these spirits. Rituals are performed under the groves of Sal trees called Sarna (also called Jaher), where Bonga is believed to appear or express himself.

Many Hindus believe that this is not a separate religion but a part of the great Hindu tree where in most of the villages the trees are worshiped. Further Karma is always on Karma Ekadashi (Bhadrapad Shukla Ekadashi) and Sarhul on Chitra Shukla Tritiya exactly as per Hindu calendars.




















As per the 2001 census Hinduism is followed by 68.5% of the population of Jharkhand. Islam is followed by 13.8% of the population and the animistic Sarna religion is practised by 13% of the population. Christianity with 4.1% of the population is the fourth largest religious community in Jharkhand. Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism are all practised, making few less than 1%.

Jharkhand has 32 tribal groups. These are the Asur, Baiga, Banjara, Bathudi, Bedia,Binjhia, Birhor, Birjia, Chero, Chick-Baraik, Gond, Gorait, Ho, Karmali, Kharia, Kharwar,Khond, Kisan, Kora, Korwa, Lohra, Mahli, Mal-Paharia, Munda, Oraon,

Parhaiya,Santal, Sauria-Paharia, Savar, Bhumij, Kol and Kanwar. In some of the districts of Jharkhand, the tribal population forms a clear majority.

Although Hindi is the state language, the people of Jharkhand speak a number of languages belonging to three major language families: the Munda languages which include Santhali, Mundari, Ho, Kharia, Bhumij; theIndo-Aryan languages which includes Bengali, Oriya, Maithili,Nagpuri, Sadri, Khortha, Kurmali and Panchpargania and the Dravidian languages which include Oraon (Kurukh), Korwa, and Paharia (Malto).

Santali is spoken predominantly in Dumka, Jamtara, Pakur, Godda, Sahibganj and in parts of East Singhbhum and Saraikela-Kharsawandistrcits. Mundari is spoken mainly in Khunti and parts of Ranchi, West Singhbhum, Gumla, Simdega and Latehar districts. Ho is mainly spoken in West Singhbhum and Saraikela-Kharswan districts. These three languages can be considered as sister languages as all of them are grammatically similar and 80%–90% of the words used are same.




As per details from Census 2011, Jharkhand has population of 3.29 Crore, an increase from figure of 2.69 Crore in 2001 census. Total population of Jharkhand as per 2011 census is 32,966,238 of which male and female are 16,931,688 and 16,034,550 respectively. In 2001, total population was 26,945,829 in which males were 13,885,037 while females were 13,060,792.




The total population growth in this decade was 22.34 percent while in previous decade it was 23.19 percent. The population of Jharkhand forms 2.72 percent of India in 2011. In 2001, the figure was 2.62 percent.




Literacy rate in Jharkhand has seen upward trend and is 67.63 percent as per 2011 population census. Of that, male literacy stands at 78.45 percent while female literacy is at 56.21 percent. In 2001, literacy rate in Jharkhand stood at 53.56 percent of which male and female were 63.83 percent and 38.87 percent literate respectively.

In actual numbers, total literates in Jharkhand stands at 18,753,660 of which males were 11,168,649 and females were 7,585,011.




Total area of Jharkhand is 79,714 sq. km. Density of Jharkhand is 414 per sq km which is higher than national average 382 per sq km. In 2001, density of Jharkhand was 338 per sq km, while nation average in 2001 was 324 per sq km.




Out of total population of Jharkhand, 24.05% people live in urban regions. The total figure of population living in urban areas is 7,929,292 of which 4,156,220 are males and while remaining 3,773,072 are females. The urban population in the last 10 years has increased by 32.29 percent.

Sex Ratio in urban regions of Jharkhand was 908 females per 1000 males. For child (0-6) sex ratio the figure for urban region stood at 904 girls per 1000 boys. Total children (0-6 age) living in urban areas of Jharkhand were 990,487. Of total population in urban region, 12.49 % were children (0-6).

Average Literacy rate in Jharkhand for Urban regions was 83.30 percent in which males were 89.78% literate while female literacy stood at 76.17%. Total literates in urban region of Jharkhand were 5,779,895.




Of the total population of Jharkhand state, around 75.95 percent live in the villages of rural areas. In actual numbers, males and females were 12,775,468 and 12,261,478 respectively. Total population of rural areas of Jharkhand state was 25,036,946. The population growth rate recorded for this decade (2001-2011) was 19.50%.

In rural regions of Jharkhand state, female sex ratio per 1000 males was 960 while same for the child (0-6 age) was 952 girls per 1000 boys. In Jharkhand, 4,247,095 children (0-6) live in rural areas. Child population forms 16.96 percent of total rural population.

In rural areas of Jharkhand, literacy rate for males and female stood at 74.57 % and 49.75 %. Average literacy rate in Jharkhand for rural areas was 62.40 percent. Total literates in rural areas were 12,973,765.








Population (%)

75.95 %

24.05 %

Total Population



Male Population



Female Population



Population Growth

19.50 %

32.29 %

Sex Ratio



Child Sex Ratio (0-6)



Child Population (0-6)



Child Percentage (0-6)

16.96 %

12.49 %




Average Literacy

62.40 %

83.30 %

Male Literacy

74.57 %

89.78 %

Female Literacy

49.75 %

76.17 %

Source: www.jharenvis.nic.in

Time: 14:08 PM 25/04/2015